Radiation Protection


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Historic X-Ray Tubes and Other Instruments

This equipment was used by the Australian Radiation Laboratory before it merged with the Nuclear Safety Bureau to form ARPANSA.

Telemicroscope   Telemicroscope: is a measuring microscope of low magnification and long working distance. It can measure the size of a small object and measure small movements.

Texilscope and Holzknecht Radiometer   Texilscope: The Huntington 'Texilscope' is a portable double gold-leaf electroscope. It was intended for use in locating mislaid Radium in the clinical practice.

Holzknecht Radiometer: designed to measure x-ray 'dose' through the colour changes induced by the rays in a semi-circular disc of barium platinocyanide

Radium paint   Radium Paint: is an intimate mixture of a Radium salt, a Phosphor and an adhesive. Such a mixture is self-luminous.

Lindemann Electrometer   Lindemann Electrometer (1936): An electrometer is an instrument for measuring electrical charge. Most electrometers only work in an upright position. This instrument could be used in any position.

Benoist Penetrometer   Benoist Penetrometer: A penetrometer is a device for assessing the 'Hardness' or 'Penetrating Ability' of x-rays that hit it.

Free-Air Ionisation Chamber  

Free-Air Ionisation Chamber: This Free-Air chamber was constructed in 1932. From 1932, it served as the Australian Primary Standard for the measurement of x-ray 'Dose', but with advancing technology it became obsolete and was withdrawn from service in 1959.

Gas Rectifier Tube   Gas Rectifier Tube: Rectifier tubes of this type contain air at low pressure. They operate as a rectifier of electric current because the surface area of the spiral electrode is much greater than that of the small electrode facing it.

Early X-Ray Tube   Early X-Ray Tube (1900): This tube was used for diagnostic radiography and was made about 1900.

Early X-Ray Tube   Early X-Ray Tube (1904): Used for radiation treatment of skin cancers, was made about 1904. An interesting feature is the glass 'cone', incorporated to allow easy reproduction of treatment distances and alignments

Early X-Ray Tube   Early X-Ray Tube: This is an early form of gas x-ray tube fitted with 'fins' to promote air-cooling of the anode by convection to the surrounding air. The tungsten plate over the copper anode increased the efficiency of the tube in producing x-rays.

Early X-Ray Tube   Early X-Ray Tube (1899): This tube is a specimen of the first type of gas x-ray tube to incorporate a water-cooled anode. The hollow anode was supplied with water by gravity feed from a supply held in the side bulb. This type of tube was introduced by Mueller about 1899.

X-Ray Tubes   X-Ray Tubes: This is a General Electric 'Universal' Coolidge x-ray tube. Tubes of this type were self-cooled by allowing heat to radiate from the tungsten anode, which often became white hot in use. The violet colour tube is the result of exposure to x-rays during its useful life.

Coolidge X-Ray tube - 'Universal' Model   Coolidge X-Ray tube - 'Universal' Model: The earliest X-Ray tubes were 'Gas' tubes of low output and uncertain performance.

Phillips Glass, Type K220   Phillips Glass, Type K220: The Phillips tube is one used in the laboratory from c. 1935 to 1938. It consists of an evacuated glass tube in which a massive cylindrical anode faces a filament partly surrounded by a focussing cup. The tube is designed to operate at voltages up to 220kv (peak).

X-Ray Tubes   X-Ray Tubes: This is a Phillips 'metalix' e200 x-ray tube. Tubes of this type were cooled by allowing water to circulate freely through the anode. It was normal for the water to boil. This tube was used in the laboratory from March 1936 to January 1968. The remarkably long life was probably due to the care with which the tube was operated.

Electric Kenotron, Type KR-5   General Electric Kenotron, Type KR-5: The General Electric kenotron is one used at the laboratory from 1938 to 1968. It consists of an evacuated glass tube containing a hollow cylindrical anode which surrounds a massive coaxial tungsten filament. This tube is designed to operate at voltages up to 230kv (peak); the robust design was intended to ensure that tubes of this type would have a long useful life.

Absorption of X-Rays in Air   This apparatus was used to measure the Absorption of X-Rays in Air. The air pressure in the tube was varied to see how this changed the absorption of X-rays.
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